Thursday, 23 June 2016

Employment oppotunities for women in the 1780s

When Mary Bateman was arrested in London in 1788, she was working as a prostitute with a number of other young girls, for Elizabeth Sully.

The 1780s were a time of social upheaval in England resulting in many people, including women, from country areas travelling to the towns and cities searching for employment. However, at this time, a  number of issues impacted upon the potential employment of young women in the workforce.
  • One event which greatly impacted upon the employment opportunities for women was the disbanding of the British Amy with soldiers returning home in 1783 after the American War of Independence. Many of the former soldiers returned to the cities increasing the population and displacing women from the workforce. Many women who had worked in shops were forced from the workforce to be replaced by men. 

  • A Shop Servant tax was also imposed at this time. 

  • In 1785 a tax imposed upon the employment of Maid Servants above the age of 15 also resulted in many young girls and women being left without employment and / or accommodation. 
The Maid Servants Address to Master Billy Pitt

The following article provides an observer's view on new taxes in 1785 including Shop Servant tax and Maid Servants tax:
'Parliament: new taxes'. The Scots Magazine July 1785 p327. Google Books. Retrieved 23 June 2016.

For many women living in the cities, prostitution and crime associated with prostitution was the only way to survive. How Mary ended up working as a prostitute we can only surmise. We do know however that after her arrest on 20 April 1788 her life changed dramatically.

References and credits

This article was completed after the assignment deadline but is relevant to providing some background for Mary's story.

Mary's Story - Mary Bateman 1773-1829

Mary's Story - Mary Bateman 1773-1829

On 19 April 1788 Mary Bateman and Elizabeth Durant met James Palmer in Wellclose Square in East London - a meeting that would dramatically change Mary’s life.  

The report of Mary's trial records that Palmer, after drinking with a friend for much of the evening, drank some ale with the young women before the three went to 45 Cable Street - a house operated by Elizabeth Sully as a brothel. [It was not unusual for young girls to be working in brothels at this time.] It was two hours before Palmer left the house and it was another hour before he noticed that his silver watch was missing. The following day police found the watch among the feathers of the bed of Elizabeth Sully. (1)

At the trial at the Old Bailey held on 7 May 1788 Elizabeth Durand swore that Mary took Palmer's watch and gave it to Elizabeth Sully.
Part of the report from Mary's trial at the Old Bailey (illus 1)

Mary Bateman was found guilty of 'stealing to the value of 39s' and sentenced to seven years transportation. Elizabeth Sully was sentenced to fourteen years transportation for receiving stolen property. (2)

Locating information about the lives of female ancestors can be a challenge but if they were convicts there is some information about them in convict records. I have not been able to locate a birth record for Mary but she was probably 15 when arrested so would have been born c1773.  Although I have found baptisms for children named Mary Bateman in the London area in the right time frame I have no proof that any of them are our Mary. There is also the possibility that Mary may have travelled to London looking for work from another area.

After her arrest and conviction Newgate Gaol was Mary's home for ten months. Conditions in the gaol were overcrowded and unhygienic with limited food rations. It was not until 12 March 1789 that 108 females (including Mary) were transferred by cart from the prison to the transport ship, the Lady Juliana - a ship which was to carry 226 female prisoners to Sydney Cove. Having escaped the confinement of the gaol the convicts now faced confinement aboard a ship for the next fifteen months. 
 The ship, Lady Juliana, in 1783 painted by R Dodd (illus 2)

The ship remained on the Thames until early July when it sailed to Portsmouth and then to Plymouth before beginning the long voyage to Australia on 29 July 1789. The Lady Juliana travelled to New South Wales via Teneriffe, Cape Verde Islands, Rio de Janeiro and Cape Town arriving at Port Jackson 6 June 1790. The actual trip took eleven months. It was a long journey. (3)

List of Convicts on Lady Juliana - Convict Stockade (illus 3)

When the Lady Juliana arrived at Sydney Cove supplies for the fledgling colony were unloaded before, on 11 June, the convicts were finally allowed on shore where they were accommodated in the hospital building or huts or tents. It must have been a relief to be on land again though the convicts were probably dismayed to see the settlement of huts in what would have appeared an alien environment. On the Sunday the convicts attended a church service where babies born on the ship were baptised.(4)

After a short stay at Sydney Cove many of the women, including Mary, boarded the ship, Surprize, to sail to Norfolk Island arriving 7 August 1790. At Norfolk Island Mary met George Guest (1765-1841) who had travelled to Port Jackson on the First Fleet and then to Norfolk Island in July 1790.

Mary and George were married by the Rev. Johnson on 21 November 1791 but had probably been living together prior to that time. Mary was mother to five children that we have records for - Sarah born 1792, George 1794, John 1798, Mary 1803 and William 1804. Unfortunately her daughter, Mary, died aged 20 months in April 1804, three months before the birth of William.
Headstone for Mary Bateman - Cemetery Norfolk Island (illus 4)

We know that George owned parcels of land on Norfolk Island where he was reputed to be the largest landowner. Hopefully Mary led a settled life with her family on the island before her life changed again. When the government decided to close the Norfolk Island settlement Mary and her family relocated in 1805 to Hobart Town, yet another new colony.

In January 1806 Mary and her family left for Port Jackson in the ship, Sophia, due to 'the want of Education' for the children.(5) Although George travelled between Port Jackson and Hobart Town on many occasions, subsequent records show Mary only living in New South Wales.

Mary probably lived in Pitt Street, Sydney, as a newspaper advertisement concerning a burglary at George Guest's house includes descriptions of female attire among items stolen.(6) However George also had other land in the colony including at Bullanaming.(7)
 Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser 22 June 1811 (illus 5)

Mary's name appears in the New South Wales Population Muster of 1811 (8)
New South Wales Population Muster 1811

and on the New South Wales Settler and Convict list for 1818. (9)
NSW Settler and Convict List female 1818

The New South Wales Musters of 1822 and 1825 provide a location for Mary (10) - the Lunatic Asylum, Parramatta.
NSW Muster 1825

Mary's apparent instability was first noted in May 1810 when, in a petition to Governor Macquarie, George stated that his treatment over land claims had resulted in his wife being deprived of her reason and that two men were employed to restrain her.(11)

The New South Wales Census for 1828 shows her as a patient at the Lunatic Asylum at Liverpool.(12)
 1828 Census

The final mention of Mary is in the New South Wales Convict Death Register recording her burial at St Luke's Cemetery, Parramatta, on 2 April 1829. She had died the previous day aged 56. (13)

New South Wales Convict Death Register

When exploring Mary’s story, it is easy to understand how, later in her life, she suffered from a mental illness. This is a sad story compounded by the knowledge that in New South Wales, isolated from her growing family, Mary would not have seen her children marry or have known her many grandchildren.

References and credits

This post was written as part of an assignment for a course on Convict Ancestors, one of the units offered by University of Tasmania, Diploma of Family History.

Cable Street and Wellclose Square

Cable Street and Wellclose Square


Map of part of London today showing Cable Street and Wellclose Square - Google Maps (illus 1)

The above map shows the closeness of Wellclose Square where Mary and Elizabeth met James Palmer to Cable Street where they then took him.

The blog, Spitalfields Life has a post entitled the lost squares of Stepney which includes information about Wellclose Square.  

References and credits

England to New South Wales

England to New South Wales 
It was more than two years from her trial at the Old Bailey until Mary finally arrived in New South Wales to start a new life on the other side of the world.

Mary's trial at the Old Bailey was held on 7 May 1778. Twenty-five months later on 11 June 1790 Mary first walked on land at Port Jackson. During that time she had spent ten months in Newport Gaol situated around the corner from the court.

In the book, The Floating Brothel, Sian Rees describes the conditions in the gaol when Mary was a prisoner:

By December 1788, 151 female convicts were living in three female cells in Newgate, which had been built to house a maximum of 70. They lived on rations fixed for that theoretical maximum and not for the number actually confined. Each cell had one window opening on to an interior well. There were no beds. Instead, there was a ramp at one end of the room with a wooden beam fixed to its top end which served as mattress and pillow. To sleep on the ramp and beam was a privilege, to be paid for weekly. To rent a blanket woven of raw hemp cost extra. Those who could afford neither curled up together on stone slabs awash with saliva and urine. (1)

On 12 March 1789 Mary and 107 other female convicts were conveyed by cart to their new accommodation, the convict ship the Lady Juliana. The ship with its cargo of convicts remained moored on the Thames until early July when it finally left the river to travel to Portsmouth and then to Plymouth. The number of prisoners on board the ship when it sailed varies in different reports but the number was possibly 226 women.

A newspaper report about the ship appeared in The Times 7 February 1889 page 3:

The ship, Lady Juliana, which is ordered by Government to carry over the convicts to Botany Bay, is a fine river-built vessel, and was the first ship that was taken by the Americans on her passage from Jamaica to London, and was afterwards retaken by a man of war, and conveyed to England. One hundred marines are ordered by Government to be raised to go to Botany Bay in the Lady Juliana.(2)

Detailed records were kept of the voyage of the Lady Juliana and Charles Bateson's book, The convict ships 1797-1868, and Sian Rees book,  The floating brothel: the extraordinary true story of an eighteenth century ship and its cargo of female convicts, are recommended reading. The ship travelled to New South Wales via Teneriffe, Cape Verde Islands, Rio de Janeiro and Cape Town arriving at Port Jackson 6 June 1790. Only five convicts died during the trip. Bateson suggests that this was because
  • the women were issued with sufficient rations
  • the ship was kept clean and fumigated throughout the voyage
  • the women had free access to the deck instead of being confined below deck
  • long stays at ports visited with access to fresh provisions (3)
During the voyage the women had a daily routine which included cleaning the ship and cooking. Some of the women also sewed shirts to be sold when they arrived at the colony.

Michael Flynn's book, The Second Fleet: Britain's grim amarda of 1790 also provides information about the journey of the ships including the Lady Juliana. Flynn also includes biographies of the convicts. 

It was winter when the Lady Juliana arrived at Sydney Cove. Two and a half years after the establishment of the new settlement supplies in the colony were low and rations had been reduced. Attempts to grow crops were not as successful as had been hoped. New supplies were needed for the survival of the colony so when a ship carrying additional convicts and only limited supplies arrived it was not greeted with great enthusiasm.

This is illustrated by the reaction of Captain David Collins to the new arrivals:

... in the distressed situation of the colony, it was not a little mortifying to find on board the first ship that arrived, a cargo so unnecessary and unprofitable as two hundred and twenty-two females, instead of a cargo of provisions ... (4)

This was not an encouraging welcome for the women after their long journey and there were more convict ships to come. Fortunately the store ship, Justinian, also arrived.

Early asylums in NSW

Early asylums in NSW

Mary Bateman is recorded as spending her final years in lunatic asylums at Parramatta and Liverpool in New South Wales. Mary died at the asylum in Liverpool in 1829 and unfortunately there are no records about patients in asylums at this time. However there is some information about the establishment of asylums in the colony.

On 29 May 1811 Governor Macquarie visited Parramatta and visited the new asylum at Castle Hill. A report in the Sydney Gazette 1 June 1811 described the establishment of the asylum.(1)
Section of article in Sydney Gazette 1 June 1811 page 1 (illus 1)

Previously a number of people with mental illness were housed in the town gaol.

The two storey former granary on the Castle Hill Agricultural Settlement was used as the main asylum building. Before its time as a granary it had been used as convict barracks. The building was made of sandstone, had a shingle roof and measured approximately 100 feet by 24 feet. It was probably first used as an asylum in May 1811. Six inmates were initially transferred from the gaol to the asylum where they were looked after by a man named Cullen and a woman who was the cook. (2)

The asylum at Castle Hill operated from 1811 to 1825. We do not know when Mary entered the asylum. Population muster and convict lists, however, show that she was there in 1822 and 1825. (3)

A short article in the Dictionary of Sydney about the Castle Hill asylum describes it as being 'overcrowded and squalid' and plans were made for the establishment of a larger asylum at Liverpool. (4)

The Colonial Secretary Index 1778-1825 contains a list of topics relating to correspondence concerning the running of the Castle Hill Asylum.

An article about the Liverpool Asylum on the New South Wales State Records' website provides the following information:

On 28 September 1825 the Grand Jurors had reported to the Court of Quarter Sessions, Parramatta, that the Lunatic Asylum at Castle Hill was "altogether unfit" due to its lack of a reliable water supply and distance from medical attention. The asylum contained 27 male and 8 female patients, under the care of one keeper. The report recommended that these "afflicted and unfortunate persons should be secured in a proper Hospital more directly situated in the vicinity of the Town", with a building constructed for the purpose. (6)

Mary would have been one of the female patients.

The article also includes the information that patients were committed to the asylum by order of a magistrate.

Patients from Castle Hill Asylum were moved to accommodation at the Liverpool Court House in 1825. It is debateable that this new accommodation was much of an improvement. It was here that Mary died in 1829.

Patients remained in this building until the new Tarban Creek Asylum was built and opened in 1838.

George Guest 1765-1841

George Guest 1765-1841

On 24 October 1873 George Guest, aged about 18, stole ten live pigs plus a chestnut mare as well as other goods from John Hathaway and Thomas Wills. This action led to his trial at the Gloucester Lent Assizes on 24 March 1784 where he received the sentence of the death penalty. This sentence was reprieved to seven years transportation to America, later changed to New South Wales. George travelled to Australia on the First Fleet aboard the ship, Alexander.(1)
Alexander transport (Frank Allen) (illus 1)

George's occupation, before his arrest, was listed as a labourer so he may have been better suited to the tough conditions of building a new settlement in the bush than some of his fellow convicts. On 7 January 1790 he left Port Jackson aboard the ship, Supply, for Norfolk Island where, after completing his sentence, he established himself as a major landholder on the island.

George married Mary Bateman on 21 November 1791 and they subsequently had two daughters and three sons, Sarah ( 1792-1868), Mary (1803-1804), George (1794-1845, John (1798-1863) and William (1804-1835).

When George and his family left Norfolk Island aboard the Sydney in September 1805 for Hobart Town, he left the island with the understanding that he would receive two acres for every acre of land he owned in Norfolk Island plus compensation for the his livestock and house. George did receive grants of 400 acres in the new colony and in New South Wales (2) and the government purchased a proportion of his sheep. However George never felt that he had received his rightful entitlement and spent much of the rest of his life presenting his case to governors and government officials.(3)

Despite his perceived problems George did own substantial land holdings in Hobart and at Risdon across the river. In the 1820s he was the owner of the Seven Stars, an inn in Campbell Street Hobart Town plus other land in the vicinity.(4) He also owned a property in Pitt Street, Sydney as well as other property in New South Wales.

George died in Hobart Town on 22 March 1841 and his headstone can be found on a wall at St David's Park, Hobart.
Headstone from grave of George Guest, St David's Park, Hobart (illus 2)

Mary's Family

Mary’s family

Mary Bateman and George Guest had five children, all of whom were born on Norfolk Island between 1792 and 1804.

Sarah (1 May 1792 - 31 March 1868)
On 12 September 1808 Sarah married Thomas William Birch ( 1767-1821) at St David's Church, Hobart Town.
Thomas William Birch, a doctor, arrived in Hobart Town aboard the Dubuc and decided to stay. He soon became a merchant, was involved in whaling and shipping and was a substanial land owner in the colony. In 1815 Birch sponsored the expedition of James Kelly to explore of coast of Van Diemen's Land. Kelly named Sarah Island in Macquarie Harbour after Birch's wife and also named Birch's Inlet after T W Birch. As a result of this expedition T W Birch and James Kelly had exclusive rights to harvest the huon pine trees on the banks of Macquarie Harbour. T W Birch died on 1 December 1821 and was buried at St David's Cemetery.
Sarah and Thomas William Birch had seven children:
Samuel (1809-1878)
Ann (1810-1811)
William (1812-1893)
Sarah (1814-1892)
Eliza (1816-1900)
Henry (1818-1865)
George (1820-1854)
On 29 November 1823 Sarah married Edmund Irton Hodgson (1792-1884). 
Sarah and Edmund had six children:
Charles Alfred (1825-1885)
Fanny (1826-1880)
Ann Jane (1828-1880)
Edmund Irton (1830-1874)
Frederick Lampla (1831-1878)
Walter (1834-1890)

George (11 December 1794 - 27 April 1845)
George was a publican in Hobart Town and also sold merchandise at one time.
On 11 May 1818 he married Elizabeth Young (1800-1829) at St David's Church, Hobart Town.
George and Elizabeth had three children.
John (1822-1919)
Sarah (1824-1828)
Elizabeth (1826-1829)
On 15 May 1832 George married Catherine Cooling (1805 - 1847).
George and Catherine had four children:
George (1832-1897)
Maria Anne (1834-?)
William (1837-1914)
Nathaniel (1839-1889)

John (1798 - 6 December 1863)
John married Elizabeth Hall (1804 - 1856) (still checking for details)
John and Elizabeth had a son, William, (1838-1853)
On 11 December 1856 John married Maria Watts in Victoria.
John and Maria had three children:
John (1856-1935)
George (1859- 1902)
Emma (1861-1908)

Mary (30 April 1803 - 1 May 1804)

William (10 July 1804 - 28 October 1835)
William was also an inn keeper.
In 1826 William married Charlotte Young (1809-1838)
William and Charlotte had three children:
Frances Mary (1827-1872)
George William (1828-1901)
Mary Elizabeth Ann (1830-1831)

References and credits

References and credits

Mary's Story - Mary Bateman 1773-1829   

(1) Rees, Sian, The Floating Brothel: the extraordinary true story of an eighteenth century ship and its cargo of female convicts, Bath: Chivers Press, 2002 (large print ed.)
    Old Bailey Online. 'Mary Bateman in Trial of Mary Bateman 7 May 1788'. Retrieved June 1, 2016. http://www.oldbaileyonline.org
(2) Old Bailey Online. 'Mary Bateman in The Punishment Summary 7 May 1788'. Retrieved June 1, 2016.  http://www.oldbaileyonline.org
(3) Rees, Sian, The Floating Brothel: the extraordinary true story of an eighteenth century ship and its cargo of female convicts, Bath: Chivers Press, 2002 (large print ed.)
Bateson, Charles, The convict ships, 1787-1868, Sydney: Library of Australian History, 2004.
Flynn, Michael, The Second Fleet: Britain's grim convict amada of 1790, Sydney: Library of Australia, 1993.
(4) Cobley, John, Sydney Cove 1789-1790, Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1963.
(5) Historical Records of Australia, Sydney: Library Committee of the Commonwealth Parliament, 1921. series 3 vol. 1 p354
(6) Trove. Classified Advertising (1811, June 22). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), , p. 2. Retrieved June 15, 2016, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article628272
(7) Trove. Classified Advertising (1810, March 3). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), , p. 2. Retrieved June 16, 2016, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article627943
(8) Ancestry.com. New South Wales, Census and Population Books, 1811-1825 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2014. Original data: New South Wales Government. Secretary to the Governor. Population musters, New South Wales mainland [1811–1819]. NRS 1260 [4/1224–25, 4/1227]. State Records Authority of New South Wales, Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia.
(9) Ancestry.com. New South Wales, Australia, Settler and Convict Lists, 1787-1834 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007. Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 1-4, 6-18, 28-30); The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England.
(10) Ancestry.com. New South Wales and Tasmania, Australia Convict Musters, 1806-1849 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007. Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 5, 19-20, 32-51); The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England.
(11) State Records NSW. 898 Papers Relating to Norfolk Island 1798-1813. Index to NRS 898 [4/1168B] p175 reel 763 26 May 1810
https://www.records.nsw.gov.au/state-archives/research-topics/convicts/nrs-898-papers-relating-to-norfolk-island-1794-1813
Flynn, Michael, The Second Fleet: Britain's grim convict amada of 1790, Sydney: Library of Australia, 1993. p155.
(12) Ancestry.com. 1828 New South Wales, Australia Census (TNA Copy) [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007.Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 21-28); The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England
(13) Ancestry.com. New South Wales, Australia, Convict Death Register, 1826-1879 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007. Original data: New South Wales Government. Convict Death Register. Series 12213, SR Reel 690. State Records Authority of New South Wales, Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia.

Credit for illustrations
(illus 1) Old Bailey Online. 'Mary Bateman in Trial of Mary Bateman - 7 May 1788'. p 37 Retrieved June 1, 2016. http://www.oldbaileyonline.org
(illus 2) Wikipedia. 'Lady Juliana (1777 ship)'. Last modified on 16 February 2016.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Juliana_(1777_ship)
(illus 2) Convict Stockade. 'Lady Juliana 1790' Last modified 6 of March, 2014.
http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/Lady+Juliana+1790
(illus 2) Facebook -  Norfolk Island History Researchers group. Image of headstone for Mary Guest https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=oa.989735301134198&type=1
(illus 2) Trove. Classified Advertising (1811, June 22). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), , p. 2. Retrieved June 15, 2016, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article628272

HAA007 Breakout 1: England to New South Wales

(1) Rees, Sian, The Floating Brothel: the extraordinary true story of an eighteenth century ship and its cargo of female convicts, Bath: Chivers Press, 2002 (large print ed.) p61
(2) Times [London, England] 7 Feb. 1789: 3. The Times Digital Archive. Web. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
(3) Bateson, Charles, The convict ships, 1787-1868, Sydney: Library of Australian History, 2004. p123
(4) Cobley, John, Sydney Cove 1789-1790, Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1963. p212

Other references:
Flynn, Michael, The Second Fleet: Britain's grim convict amada of 1790, Sydney: Library of Australia, 1993.
Edwell, Penny, 'Lady Juliana', in Dictionary of Sydney, viewed 02 June 2016
http://dictionaryofsydney.org/entry/lady_juliana

HAA007 Breakout 2: Early Asylums in New South Wales

(1) Trove. SYDNEY. (1811, June 1). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), , p. 1. Retrieved June 15, 2016, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article628253
(2) Lachlan and Elizabeth Macquarie Archive. 'Castle Hill Lunatic Asylum May 1811'.Retrieved June 3, 2016
http://www.mq.edu.au/macquarie-archive/lema/1811/sydgaz1june1811.html
(3) Ancestry.com. New South Wales and Tasmania, Australia Convict Musters, 1806-1849 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007. Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 5, 19-20, 32-51); The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England.
(4) Dictionary of Sydney. 'Castle Hill Lunatic Asylum'. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
http://www.dictionaryofsydney.org/organisation/castle_hill_lunatic_asylum
(5) State Records NSW. 'Colonial Secretary Index, 1788-1825 - Castle Hill Asylum'. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
http://colsec.records.nsw.gov.au/indexes/colsec/c/F10c_cas-ci-02.htm
(6) State Records NSW. 'Liverpool Lunatic Asylum'. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
http://investigator.records.nsw.gov.au/Entity.aspx?Path=\Agency\63

Credit for illustration:
(illus 1) Trove. SYDNEY. (1811, June 1). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), , p. 1. Retrieved June 15, 2016, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article628253

Mary's Family

Information relating to members of Mary's family was taken from part of my Family Tree on Ancestry.

George Guest 1765-1841

(1) Gillen, Mollie, The Founders of Australia: a biographical dictionary of the First Fleet, Sydney: Library of Australian History, 1989 pp151-152.
(2) Historical Records of Australia, Sydney: Library Committee of the Commonwealth Parliament, 1921, series 3 vol. 2 pp 30-31
(3) Historical Records of Australia, Sydney: Library Committee of the Commonwealth Parliament, 1921, series 3 vol. 2 pp 339, 354-355, 357
(4) Family Connections. 'George Guest 1765-1841'. [Information on the research I have done so far on George's landholdings can be found in this blog].
http://connectingthefamily.blogspot.com.au/search/label/George%20Guest%20%281765-1841%29

Credit for illustrations:
(illus 1) First Fleet Fellowship Victoria. 'The Eleven Ships' Retrieved June 3, 2016.
http://firstfleetfellowship.org.au/ships/eleven-ships/
(illus 2) Headstone for George Guest at St David's Park. Photo taken by V.Court November 2015.

Cable Street and Wellclose Square

Credit for illustration:
Google Maps. 'Wellclose Square and Cable Street, London'. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
https://goo.gl/maps/jp9FC1oWpdQ2

Employment oppotunities for women in the 1780s

Reference:
(1) Rees, Sian, The Floating Brothel: the extraordinary true story of an eighteenth century ship and its cargo of female convicts, Bath: Chivers Press, 2002 (large print ed.)

Credit for illustration:
'Maid Servants Address to Master Billy Pitt'. The British Museum. Retrieved 11 May 2016. http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=1459564&partId=1